Military Censorship on News of Human Rights Violations in CHT

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                           Lyon Tripura                            

Controversy always remains as to what extent the media is powerful, impartial and at its liberty in publishing out news during the era of independent Bangladesh. But it can safely be said that in absolute sense of the term, the media is free and impartial in none of the countries. All the states and governments tend to make use of the mass media and news media to harvest their self-interest and of course, Bangladesh is also not an exception to this trend. Rather in Bangladesh, there has arisen repeated allegation of using and controlling the news and mass media by the government and administration on various occasion to serve their self ends. Matter did not end up there, hard and strict censorship has been imposed one after another in variance so that the media with its independent entity cannot criticize functions of the government and extol the public reaction over wrongs and failures of the government in contrast. It does not necessitate to become a specialist to understand the trend.

In 2018, the present government introduced the ‘Digital Security Act 2018’ to close all windows of criticism on its functions and thereby to hijack the freedom of speech. It is through the act, the government is running the steam roller upon its critiques, quarters of different opinions and the opposition parties. Its suppressive design includes: sometimes filing up cases; if it does not work, to carry out attacks by its supporters; and even getting its opponants imprisoned and fined by pressurizing the judiciary. This has had an impact upon the practice of free thoughts and in the University campus – the source of creation of multi-opinions and avenues. The ruling party nominated teachers, being hungry after posts and designation, are filing up cases against their colleagues or students. In recent days, cases under the Digital Security Act have been filed up against two teachers of Begum Rokeya University and Rajshahi University and one student of Shahjalal Science & Technology University by the respective university authorities centering a Facebook status following demise of Mohammad Nasim, the former Minister of Health. Holistically, what else could be more shameful than this!

Up to the extent that the Bangladesh news media or mass media is capable of working freely or impartially can be found in a report published in 2020 by the ‘Reporters without Borders’ an international organization expressing observation on freedom of Mass Media. The report reads that from among the 180 countries of the world, Bangladesh has walked one step down scoring 151 rank comparing to the previous year. It means it is crystal clear that by now, Bangladesh is left with not even a speck of freedom of news media as it would mean in its context earlier. The organization, in its report further said that the independent mass media throughout the globe are becoming incapable of gathering courage to expose the truth under pressure of the states and governments day by day. On exposition of truth, they are subjected to entangle in cases under various laws. Consequently, influence of governments, states, military and civil institutions upon the mass media is heightening up day by day. Even amid the Covid-19 pandemic days, gravity of government interference and repression is getting increased. The account reveals that following introduction of the Digital Security Act 2018, cases against 180 journalists have been filed as of this day. Many have been arrested. Apart from the journalists, there are writers, cartoonists and human rights activists among the arrestees. The application of Digital Security Act is seemingly more formidable than that of Covid-19 amid the pandemic, today.

Restrictions on expression of free and impartial opinion at national level

In 2016, Bangladesh Intelligence Agency had stopped giving advertisements to the daily Prothom Alo, a national news media, which has a wide-range of articulation at home and in abroad, allegedly for using the words “indigenous peoples” in its write-ups. Later on, the Daily obliged to mention the government prescribed words ‘tribe’ and ‘small ethnic groups.’ The government warned all the media forbidding usage of ‘indigenous peoples’ through promulgation of a circulation in 2018. Despite being so, some news media are using the words ‘indigenous peoples’ as yet. But it is not that they are being spared as such. Also they are undergoing harsh accountability. On the other hand, due to being in the face of state pressure, the news on communal attacks, illegal land occupation, raping women and children, killing and other human rights violations upon the indigenous people living in various remote areas of the country, gets no access to media publication. The reason is that behind such incidents, the government or organizations of the ruling party or individuals linked to the state power, are found to have involvement in the incidents. However, it is by the blessing of Facebook, though the news on some incidents comes to our knowledge yet a lion portion of the incidents remain unexposed to the countrymen and people of the world.

◐ During the 1/11 tenure, the army-backed Caretaker government adopted the policy of character assesination and repression upon the politicians and business class. Even, the military intelligence agency compelled a good number of print media to publish out unathenticated or unproved news on corruption and mal-practices of power against the politicians.

The second illustration is that during the 1/11 tenure, the army-backed Caretaker government adopted the policy of character assesination and repression upon the politicians and business class. Even, the military intelligence agency compelled a good number of print media to publish out unathenticated or unproved news on corruption and mal-practices of power against the politicians. Mahfuz Anam, the Editor of The Daily Star also admitted the fact. Motiur Rahaman, Editor of the daily Prothom Alo, was made publish an editorial titled: “The two female leaders must quit.” Following the Election-2008, on Awami League’s return to power, write-ups appeared for many times centering the incident. In 2013, the Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) published out a report on role of one part of the army during tenure of the Caretaker government.

The Netranews dated 24 July 2020 in its report says: “The day General Aziz was made the Army Chief, the popular newsportal bdnews24.com published a report that day. As the way the report was published, it was written: ‘That the name Aziz has recently appeared in the media is for his younger brother, Tofayel Ahmmed who had become a noted terrorist in 1990s and his sentence to death was reduced; and at last he was released from the jail on amnesty of the President.’ The BTRC, by order of DGFI, promptly ordered to close the bdnews website. On deletion of the foregone writings, the news portal was restored after several hours.” The netranews further added: “It is quite easy to comprehend up to what extend an Editor in Bangladesh finds himself incapable of publishing something that can arouse anger in the army.”

The TIB Report says: ‘After 11 January 2007, during 2-year tenure of the Caretaker government, one part of the Army earned huge amount of money and wealth by misusing power and they also imposed control over the mass media.’ This information clearly proves that the army had influence and control over the mass media in the country. In other sense, it stands that the news media in Bangladesh has been used by various governments, army and intelligence agency on various occasions.

The Human Rights Watch in its report says that the journalists fall under such pressure that leads them to resort to self-censorship or to undertake risk of persecution. The government closed approximately 20,000 websites in the name of “campaign against pornography” in last February. From among those, there were also quite a good number of popular websites. The National Telecommunication Monitoring Cell blocked the English News website of Aljazira for publishing a report containing some allegations against the Security Advisor of the Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina in March.

Army and DGFI censorship in CHT

Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) comprises 1/10th part of the independent Bangladesh. The constitution of Bangladesh was composed in 1972. A demand was raised for a democratic administrative system to be enshrined in the constitution for preservation of the national entity of the Jumma people. In context of independent administrative history, national identity and economy of CHT, the leaders of CHT including M N Larma placed a demand to the government for Regional Autonomy. But despite strong urge of the Jumma people, the demand was neglected and rejected. On the other hand, in place of fulfilling the demand of CHT residents, the government continued to adopt repressive measures one after another. To that end, three Army Cantonments were established in Dighinala, Alikadam and Ruma. State of Emergency was promulgated throughout the CHT region at that time. The Jumma people were constitutionally designated as the ‘Bengali.’ Thereafter began various forms of atrocities, repression and oppression upon the innocent common people in the name of suppressing Razakar and Mujahid forces.

On promulgation of Marshal Law in 1975, all avenues leading to waging movement along the democratic convention got closed. On the other end, the military and para-military campaigns associated with atrocities upon the Jumma people got escalated. Aiming at protection of Jumma national entity and preservation of rights to lands vis-à-vis self-protection, the Jumma people had to embark upon the armed struggle of resistance. In 1980, army campaign was escalated in the name of suppressing the Shanti Bahini by promulgation of ‘Operation Dabanal’ (Operation Wildfire), which was renamed as ‘Operation Uttoron’ (Operation Ufliftment) in 2001. An information says that 1 (one) army soldier was engaged against 7 Jumma people. After waging resistance struggle under leadership of PCJSS for more than two decades, the CHT Accord was signed in 1997. Following signing of the Accord, of the 72 sections, altogether 25 sections have been implemented over the last 23 years. The remaining 2/3rd sections have been left unimplemented as yet.

Of the unimplemented core issues lying with the Accord are: to undertake lawful and administrative measures to preserve the tribal-inhabited feature of CHT; to devolve political, administrative, and economic power & functions including the subjects of administration, law & order, police, land & land management, forest & environment, tourism, development of communication system to the CHT Regional Council and Hill District Councils; having formulated the Election Regulation and Electoral Roll Regulation, to enumerate a voter list with only the permanent residents of CHT and hold elections in CHT Regional Council and the Hill District Councils; to withdraw all the temporary camps including the ‘Operation Uttoron’- de facto military rule; having the land disputes resolved, to return the disposed lands to the Jumma land owners; having returned the lands to the respective owners of the India-returnee refugees and internally displaced Jumma families, to rehabilitate them in their respective lands; to cancel the leases of lands given to the non-resident outsider; on the basis of preference to the Jumma candidates, to appoint the permanent residents in all the jobs available in CHT; in order to ensure consonance with the Accord, to bring amendment to all other laws applicable to CHT including the Police Act, Police Regulation and CHT Regulation 1900; and to rehabilitate the Bengali settlers outside CHT with dignity and honour, etc.

In one hand, the government is not implementing the Accord while having violated the laws formulated in consonance with the CHT Accord, the administrative functions have been being performed through District and Upazilla administration including the Deputy Commissioner, Superintendent of Police and the army deployed in CHT. Though there is provision in accordance to which all the temporoary camps were to be withdrawn with exception to 6 cantonments as per the Accord but in reality, the government is establishing the new amy camps one after another.

“The report says that even after 20 years of CHT Accord, the region is lying under military supervision and the indigenous rights activists are being persecuted, forced to disappear and threatened.”

In fact, the government vis-à-vis ruling class is engaged in fulfilling a mean interest of promoting Islamization and militarization in CHT while keeping the region under military rule. On 8 July 2020, Human Rights Watch published a report on global human rights situation. The report says that even after 20 years of CHT Accord, the region is lying under military supervision and the indigenous rights activists are being persecuted, forced to disappear and threatened. In continuation to the trend, 3 innocent Jumma men from Panchhri of Khagrachhari hill district were picked up in the dark night on 1 July and the Intelligence and army soldiers picked up 2 Jumma men, one person during the day and another person at night from different locations of the Rangamati town.

In one side, due to non-implementation of the Accord, there reigns the instable situation in CHT.On the other side, by afflicting with fabricated cases upon, the right-loving organizations and individuals including the PCJSS leaders have been made desolated from their respective localities. Taking advantage of the situation, there goes unabated festivity of extraction of stones from the streams of Mouza-forest lands owned by the Jumma people, raping of Jumma women, killing and programs of forcible land occupation, on the other side. The role of police and security forces always remains questioned. The factual reality is: events of the kind hardly occupies the headlines in any news media or dailies in the country. The reason is that behind these events there are the main actors or planners from the army and intelligence agency. It is they who handle the switches behind the screen. The history of army-intelligence agency supremacy over not appearing the news of human rights violations in CHT on TV or in news media finds its liveliness dated back to 1980s. It had been the time when the resistance struggle was being waged under leadership of PCJSS. The commoners of Bangladesh did not have any means of access to knowledge on what used to go and what would not. They would come to know only as the briefing would get originated by the army, intelligence agency and government. In fact, all those news used to be fabricated, arranged and cooked government report.

With a view to eliminating and turning the Jumma people to minority, the army, VDP and the settlers organizedly carried out more than 15 genocides during the pre-accord era. In the statements made by the eye witnesses and victims, it was mentioned that the army and VDP would always be seen by side of the settlers while carrying out genocides. By then it was the army who initially would start the attack and then the settlers continue carrying out the attack. In this regard, the worth-mentioning illustration is the Kalampati massacre that was carried out on 25 March 1980. On this day, the army called the surrounding Jumma people in pretext of renovation of the local Buddhist temple and opened burst fire at them and then they incited the settlers to attack upon the Jumma people fleeing for life. More than 100 innocent Jumma people including women and children were killed in the attack jointly conducted by the army and settlers. Though investigation on some of the genocides were conducted but so far, reports of the Investigation Committee have never come to light. Reports on the remaining genocides were let disappear in the bottomless pitch of the time. The persons responsible for the crimes have not been brought to trial. News on those tragic events did not appear in the then media publication either. The media people always used to be kept under surveillance of the army so that they would get no chance to talk with the victims of Jumma people and thereby not to be enable to focus on the actual event.

There had been a case filed with the Baghaichhari Police Station against the prime kidnappers Lieutenant Ferdous, VDP constable Nurul Haque and Saleh Ahmmed, for being involved in kidnapping Ms Kalpana Chakma, the then Organizing Secretary of Hill Women’s Federation, in the darkness of night on 12 June 1996. The kidnapping incident of Kalpana Chakma in dark night also did not make headline in any of the dailies. Indeed, the common people of Bangladesh gradually came to know about the kidnapping incident of Kalpana Chakma due to continued activities and movement of the Pahari Chhatra Porishad (Hill Students Council). Demanding for whereabouts of Kalpana Chakma, though there had been a wide-range momentum at domestic and global levels raised owing to contribution of many efforts including that of the international bodies like the Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, the prime accused Lt. Ferdous, for being hailed from army, by merit of the state power, no trial was held. Even, the accused Lt. Ferdous was promoted to Major rank and was known to have been serving in Sylhet. However, the state has miserably failed to unearth the whereabouts of Kalpana Chakma even after 24 years.

On 16 August 2015, The Daily star and the Prothom Alo daily published a news stating that five killed by army in CHT. Tittle of the Daily Star was: “Gunfight in hills: Five killed by army” and the title headlined in the Prothom Alo Daily was: “Five indigenous youths were killed in a gunfight with the army in Baghaichhari area of Rangamati Hill District.”

The news angered the army. But the reason was not for making news of 5 killed by the army, rather for using the word “indigenous” and for not introducing the dead youths as “terrorists.” While the media section ISPR communicated with the concerned Editors on the issue, the editors had to promise that the news would be re-published after bringing necessary rectification and the duo obliged to republish the news on the following day accordingly.

 Though the Investigation Committee of National Human Rights Commission on Romel’s death could unarth the truth, no legal procedure was undertaken against the prime accused Captain Tanvir and the accused army personnel.

In 2017, one HSC examinee named Romel Chakma who was also impaired of sighting, was inhumanly totured to death by the army after arresting him after projecting him as an accused under the Naniarchar truck arson case. Though Romel’s name was in the army-prepared list but as per version of the Police, his name was not in the accused list under the Truck-arson case. In this incident, though the army admitted holding up Romel Chakma but denied his getting killed. Though the Investigation Committee of National Human Rights Commission on Romel’s death could unarth the truth, no legal procedure was undertaken against the prime accused Captain Tanvir and the accused army personnel.

In 2017, in Longadu Upazila of Rangamati Hill district, the settlers carried out an organized communal attack upon the Jumma people, plundered and set fire in their houses under supervision of the army and police contingent. Some 250 houses were completely burnt to ashes during the attack. In Tintila of Longadu, one Gunamala Chakma aged 75 died in the flaming fire. In this incident also in place of holding up the actual happenings in the event, untrue and fabricated news had made public in the news media under pressure of the army and intelligence agency. Though it has passed 3 years since the incident, the real offenders have not yet been punished. Many of the victims are still living under the open sky.

In February 2018, the news of incident in which two Marma adolescent girls were raped and sexually assaulted by the army in Bilaichari of Rangamati Hill District was not made public in the mainstream news media. The authorities of army and intelligence agency blocked the news. As the incident got exposed through facebook, the news came to exposure in print and electronic media after many days since its occurrence and that too, was made articulate stating ‘allegation was received to the effect’in the print and electronis media. But the army, in order to slip the matter under carpet, held a mockery ‘press coference’ with a false and fabricated tale briefed by a hired collaborator named Rasel Marma. On completion of reading out the written briefing, the journalists present in the conference asked the victims’ younger brother what he had seen that day, in reply, the young boy informed that he had seen Bengali people in army uniform. Needless to say, in this case also no trial of the two rapists and sexual assaultants (army soldier) were not held.

In the same year, the raping incident of two Tripura adolescent girls by the Alikadam BGB constables, though appeared in one or two papers, the news skipped optimal leading dailies. The BGB members and intelligence staff were active so that the news would not appear in the print media. Though the victims openly told Bandarban Police Superintendent on the factual reality of raping, the accused BGB constables have not been brought under the law as yet. The Citizen Team proceeding for investigation, despite having pre-permission from the Upazilla Nirbahi Officer, was prevented by the army from entering into the village. Later on, the incident got covered gradually.

On 21 August 2019, Md. Masum Rana, Councilor of Ward No. 2 of Khagrachhari Municipality, accusing Sanjoy Kumar Barua, Bandarban representative of the Daily Star, filed up a case with the Khagrachhari Chief Judicial Magistrate Court for using the words “Indigenous Peoples.” Smell of fuelling by the army and Intelligence agency also belches out in this incident. The reason is that Sanjoy Barua has been using the words “indigenous peoples” in his write-ups during the last many years. Though there was none to feel headache for so long earlier but it was one settler who just came and occupied a position to file up the case. Later on, the court in its verdict that went in favor of the journalist, declared that the independence and sovereignty of the country do not have link with the words “indigenous peoples” and the consititution does not contain any prohibition in the usage of the words “indigenous peoples.”

The other most discussed information is linkage of army and intelligence agency with the Ransom Trading. It is learnt through inquiry that the intelligence agencies exerts their prime role in obtaining bail in the falsehood cases filed against the rights activists of CHT. They negotiate clandestinely with the bail seekers and realize money as ransom. Those who decline to pay or unable to pay money, they are re-arrested at the jail gate while coming out on bail. Consequently, many oblige to pay money to the army and intelligence staff even selling out their last livelihood-supporting asset. There are many allegations of the kind.

It is learnt from the source of Information and Publicity Department of PCJSS that after the CHT Accord of 2December 1997, more than 20 communal attacks occurred widely upon the Jumma people. Also in these cases, the influence of army and intelligence agencies would be found active in ensuring indemnity of the accused. The reason is that the army, law & order forces and intelligence agencies control all affairs. Many journalists in anonymity admit the practice in face-to-face conversation. Any news media intending to publish news had to articulate news siding the army and intelligence agencies. The real happenings would have to hide from the articulation of news posted for publication. Either an independent individual or a worker of the organization used to get entangled. Inquiry further reveals that the army and intelligence agencies have opened some upstart online news portals at their own finance. The news portals of the kind do not have own news staff at all. But all of their news sources are from army and intelligence agencies. It is to render news as a party of their side. It is to circulate only the news of falsehood and propagation suppliedby them. For this job, some amount of money is paid to those news media – confirmed by a confidential source.

The time has rolled over and the age also has got changed but the reality with CHT has remained as it has been earlier. The government with which the CHT Accord was signed, it is the same government that has though ascend to power consecutively for 3 times yet no eagerness is noticed in implementing the Accord; rather like dictator rulers, it has escalated the resolving activity through repressive measures. All avenues of movement through democratic convention have been closed.

The scenario has been embodied more vividly in recently published report on human rights situation in CHT from January to June 2020 by the PCJSS, one of the Accord signatories directing to peace. In the report, alleging the government, it has been stated that in order to obstruct the implementation process of the Accord; divert the CHT situation towards different course; above all, directing to execute the anti-accord and anti-interest of the Jumma people programs uninterruptedly, as a part of criminalizing the Jumma people engaged in the movement, the army, BGB, intelligence agencies and police have perpetrated 72 incidents of human rights violations during the last 6 months from January to June 2020.

The 72 events include: 2 extra-judicial killings, 27 arbitrary arrests, 8 detentions, 22 physical tortures and harrasments, 53 house searchings, 3 new camp establishments and 167 families fallen prey to damage due to military development.

The report further states: within the span from January to June 2020, the army has provided direct assistance nakedly in expanding the encatchment areas for terrorist and extortion activities of Reformist and UPDF (democratic) armed terrorist groups as to direct the CHT situation towards different course and obstruct the implementation process of the Accord.

Not a single one among the incidents caused by the army from January to June 2020, made headline in any print media or on electronic media. If any news appeared in print or on electronic media at all, it is for sure that it had been distorted and sided. Since January and onward, the PCJSS publishes reports on human rights violations at the end of each month and sends to national and local print media, electronic media and online news portals through e-mail. But it is for the pressure exerted from the army, those human rights violation news get published in none of the media. If it sheldom happens to get published, it is published in distorted and partial form. For instance, ‘the New Age,’ an English daily is considered to be a bold paper. During the state of emergency following the 1/11, the Editor Nurul Kabir had been very vocal against the military rule. It is the same Daily, which published out the PCJSS report of April having the army-caused-human-rights violations completely cut off.

In the April report of PCJSS, it says: By the army and BGB, 7 held, 13 beaten and harassed, 8 detained, 13 houses searched and one single blank fire shot to create terror and one pregnant woman with delivery pain died on the way to hospital for having been held for a period of quarter to an hour. The report adds: On the other side, 3 shot dead and 4 kidnapped and a huge sum of money realized by the army-backed Reformist and UPDF (Democratic) terrorists.

But the New Age daily, instead, published the news under headline titled: “3 killed in Chittagong Hill Tracts in April” wherein it only mentioned: ‘3 killed by shooting and 4 kidnapped including 1 student and handsome amount of ransom realized’ but kept totally aside the segment that states: “By the army and BGB, 7 held, 13 beaten and harassed, 8 detained and 13 houses searched.”

But the New Age daily, instead, published the news under headline titled: “3 killed in Chittagong Hill Tracts in April” wherein it only mentioned: ‘3 killed by shooting and 4 kidnapped including 1 student and handsome amount of ransom realized’ but kept totally aside the segment that states: “By the army and BGB, 7 held, 13 beaten and harassed, 8 detained and 13 houses searched.” Hence, it may be assumed that it is due to fear for suppressive and repressive measures on part of the army and intelligence agencies, the New Age published the news that way.

Also the incident in which wounded one Jumma woman named Shanti Lata Tanchangya and her son on 10 July 2020, the news tainted with concocted information of the army and intelligence agencies was made publish throughout the country under headline: One housewife died in crossfire between the terrorists and army. Whereas in conversasion with the locals, it is learnt that no exchange of firing occurred in both the cases. In one incident, 6 died in an inner-party-groupism encounter while in another incident Shantilata was killed by the shot intentionally fired to create fear in masses.

On the other end, it is learnt on inquiry that “Hill Voice”, an online news portal with boldness and unbiasness, is making available the news on human rights violations, such as, inhuman atrocities, illegal arrest, searching houses, suppression and repression, illegal land occupation, killing & plundering, raping Jumma women, etc. at domestic and global levels. Based on reports received from the army and intelligence agencies, the government has blocked the “Hill Voice” news portal in Bangladesh on 16 April 2020. But most of the readers visit the website by installing protonvpn.com on their computers and cell phones.

Towards end of July last, in killing incident of Rtired Major Sinha in a gunfight with police, in a report of confidential investigation, an allegation of extra-judicial killing was brought against the Cox’s Bazaar police (netranews.com, dated 2 August 2020). However, the DGFI has not been seen to that much vocal over the issue of extra-judicial killings of thousands of people in crossfire or gunfight perpetrated by the army-led RAB. Rather the army and DGFI have given their support directly or indirectly on various pleas. It is the DGFI, itself, has caused numerous extra-judicial killings in CHT. Whereas, astonishingly, the army and DGFI have become so vocal at such brutal killing of a retired army Major!

In publication of news on human rights violations vis-à-vis suppression and oppressionin CHT, the Army-DGFI censorship is already there and in addition, self-censorship also works on certain news media in some cases. Hence, in comparison to the sphere as a whole in the country, in the case with freedom of media including freedom of expression, it has to face twice-time restrictions in CHT. Hence, the issue of army suppression and oppression is veered by not only the media of the country but also the other quarters, such as, democratic, non-communal and progressive political parties, civil societies and even the human rights organizations of the country, tend to avoid pretenting not seen or heard. Thus, how the army and DGFI are carrying out anti-humanity suppression and oppression in CHT while keeping the country people and people of the world in total darkness.

Mass media is like a mirror of life and in modern age, it has turned into one of the organs of a democratic state. Now, media is a part of our life and society; it may be said, a companion of mass people. The task of mass media is to bring forth the well and woes, feelings and delight, pain, despair, plight, inequality, etc of people of the state and hasten the path heading to solution; to point out the aspects of both good and bad; offer healthy criticism; to play a role in building nation; to bring forth the mass opinion on functions of the state, etc. Basically, having turned to independent and self-controlled, it is through honesty, sincerity, balance and high standard professionalism, to provide correct and unerroneous information comprises one of the responsibilities of media. From the position of sense of responsibility, the mass media could have played a significant role in uplifting from the on-going harsh situation in CHT. No initiative as such comes to notice. The mass media in CHT, to say, runs at army sponsorship. So, by them, rendering impartial news and suggestions on what role the government could perform to resolve the crisis, cannot be expected. In this regard, though the main Mass media of the country has the opportunity to observe a great role, yet they refrain themselves from doing so for fear of government, army and the intelligence agencies. If the mass media cannot perform the task and cannot let people know the unknown news with courage; then it tantamounts to deceit the spirit for which the media has been created.

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